Writing in Health and Movement Sciences
Writing in the health and movement sciences mainly consists of presenting research data. Research is the close study of an area or field to answer questions or prove a hypothesis. The solutions to research questions must be found logically, systematically, and objectively to ensure consistency and validity. Sufficient background information to support a hypothesis will require extensive research of previously conducted experiments. When presenting data, a clear, non-descriptive style must be used. It can not consist of flowery description, but must state the findings and results in a concise and complete manner. Writing in the health and movement sciences must follow the APA format for writing and citing.
Major Steps in the Research Process
How to Write an Abstract
How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography (Lit Review)
Examples of Acceptable and Unacceptable Background Sources
Sample Grading Sheets in the HMSR Department
Ways in which research can be conducted:
- Historical - reconstruct the past objectively and accurately
- Descriptive - describe systematically, factually, and accurately a situation of interest
- Developmental - investigate patterns and sequences of growth and/or change as a function of time
- Case and Field Approach - study intensively the background, current status, and environmental interactions of a given social unit
- Correlations - investigate the extent to which variations in one factor corresponds with variations in one or more other factors based on correlations coefficients.
- Causal Comparative or Ex Post Facto Approach - investigate cause and effect relationships by observing some existing consequence and searching back through data
- True Experimental Approach - investigate possible cause and effect relationships by exposing one or more experimental groups to one or more treatments or conditions and comparing results to one or more control groups not receiving treatment
- Quasi-experimental Approach - approximate the conditions of true experiment in a setting that does not allow the control and or manipulations of all relevant variables
- Action Approach - develop new skills or approaches in order to solve problems or improve performance in the classroom or other applied setting
- Formulating and determining the problem - the identification of a research topic, statement of the problem, and assessment of its feasibility.
- Reviewing the related literature - the reading and organization of previously written materials relevant to the specific problem to be investigated, the theoretical framework, and the methods appropriate to perform the study
- Developing a theoretical framework - the integration of the specific problem into a broader scientific context which seeks to explain irregulatieies in the relationship among the variables.
- Identifying the research variables - the careful and thourough definition of the variables being studied; and the identification of the independent and dependent variables.
- Formulating hypothesis - the development of predictions concerning the outcomes of the study; the specification of testable expected relationships among variables
- Selecting a research design - the formulation of a strategy for answering the research questions and for implementing controls over the research situation
- Specifying the population - the identification of the target group to whom the researcher hope to generalize the results of the study; the term population refers tot he totality of some class of objects or individuals that have one or more characteristic in common
- Operationalizing and measuring the research variables - the development or selection of suitable instruments to measure the variables of interest, via some method such as self-reports, observational techniques, physiological measurements, or content analysis
- Conducting the pilot study and makin revisions - the carrying out of a small-scale trial run to detect any unforeseen problems in the research methods
- Selecting the sample - the development and implementation of a sampling procedure (using either probablitity or nonprobability sampling procedures) to obtain a sample or subset to represent the whole population and from whom data will be collected.
- Collecting the data - The gathering together of the information needed to answer the research questions and test the hypothesis
- Organizing the data for analysis - the performance of preliminary steps, such as coding, to prepare the data for analysis
- Analyzing the data - the organization and summary of the information obtained in the study through statistical procedures designed to enhance the interpretability of the findings and make inferences concerning the reliability of the obervations for the larger population.
- Interpreting the results - the task of making sense of the findings, of explaining how the results relate to the conceptual framework and to other findings, and of suggesting further research in the area
- Communicating findings - the written description of what was done, why it was done, to whom or with whom it was done, what was found, and what the implications should be
Note: This is an idealized model, but often considerable shifting back and forth, rethinking and reorganizing may occur
(Source: Pilot, D. and Bernadette Hungler (1983). Nursing research: principles and methods. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippencott. See p. 55-56).
Across top of page include complete bibliographic notation in exact form to be used in final reference list.
Hypothesis (if included)
An annotated bibliography is a list of books and ariticles. Each citation is followed by a brief, descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotion is to inform the reader of the releveance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.
First, locate and record citations to books and articles that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.
Cite the book or article using the APA style.
Write a concise annotation that summarized the central theme of each book or article. You may compare and contrast this work with another you have cited, explain what this work adds to your topic, comment on the intended audience, and/or evaluate the background of the author.
Some of the periodicals listed at the web page above are unacceptable sources. They include:
- CAMPING MAGAZINE
- GOLF DIGEST
- RUNNER'S WORLD
- SPORTING NEWS
- SPORTS ILLUSTRATED
- SWIMMING WORLD & JUNIOR SWIMMER
- WOMEN'S SPORTS AND FITNESS
While these periodicals are unacceptable sources, they can be used to find other background information. For example, if there is an article that pertains to the research being conducted, the researcher can use the references from the article in his/her own research.
HMSR 351 INTRODUCTION TO ATHLETIC TRAINING
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PAPER/PRESENTATION
Basic requirements: 40 points
Writing: 20 points
Literature review: 20 points
APA style: 20 points
Presentation: 10 points
RESEARCH PROPOSAL GRADING SHEET
Proposal Outline (Hypothesis) (5 points)
Literature Review (25 points)
- Sufficient breadth and/or depth of arguments (coverage of relevant data)
- Factual versus opinion
- Factual and current
Introduction (20 points)
- Problem statement
Methodology (20 points)
- Specific Procedures
- Data collection
- Statistical Plan
MECHANICS and PRESENTATION:
Writing (10 points)
- Scientific terminology
Structure (10 points)
APA STYLE FORMAT: (10 points)
- Resources cited in text correctly
- Resources cited in bibliography correctly
- APA Format
- Page Numbers
DEDUCTIONS FROM THE 100 POINT TOTAL:
- Failure to turn in sources and note cards (10 point deduction)
- Turned in after due date (5 points per missed deadline and two points per day late)
- Meetings with advisor (2 points per missed weekly session)
- Editing sessions at writing center (5 bonus points)
Created by Kerrie Swarts from HMSR Department Guidelines